Summer annual forages such as sudangrass, sorghum-sudan hybrids and pearl millet that was planted this spring soon could be ready to graze. There are some guidelines to help avoid potential hazards.

The first is to never turn hungry animals into sudangrass or sorghum-type pastures. The reason why is because they may eat so rapidly that they could get a quick overdose of prussic acid and die. All sudangrass and sorghum-type hybrids can produce a compound called prussic acid that is potentially poisonous. Prussic acid, which also is called cyanide, is nothing to fear, though, as long as you use a few precautions to avoid problems.

The highest concentration of prussic acid is in new young shoots, so let your grass get a little growth on it before grazing to help dilute out the prussic acid. Let sudangrass get 15-18 inches in height before grazing. Sorghum-sudan hybrids usually have a little more prussic acid risk, so wait until they are 18-24 inches tall.

Pearl millet does not contain prussic acid, so if you planted millet these grazing precautions aren’t needed. Pearl millet can be grazed when it reaches 12-15 inches in height.

Nitrates also can accumulate in these grasses, particularly when there are droughty conditions and/or excess nitrogen fertilization. Avoid grazing these grasses too short, since nitrate concentration is highest in the lower parts of the stems.

Summer annual grasses respond best to a simple, rotational grazing system. Divide fields into three or more smaller paddocks of a size that your animals can graze down to about eight or so inches of leafy stubble within 7-10 days. Repeat this procedure with all paddocks. If grass in some paddocks gets too tall, it could be cut for hay.

A well-planned start, a good rotation, and a little rain can give you good pasture from these grasses all the rest of the summer.

By Jerry Volesky

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